By Walter Rüegg
This can be the ultimate quantity in a four-part sequence masking the advance of the college in Europe (east and west) from its origins to the current day, concentrating on a couple of significant topics considered from a eu viewpoint. The originality of the sequence lies in its comparative, interdisciplinary, collaborative and transnational nature. It offers additionally with the content material of what was once taught on the universities, yet its major function is an appreciation of the position and buildings of the colleges as obvious opposed to a backdrop of adjusting stipulations, rules and values. This quantity bargains with the reconstruction and epoch-making enlargement of upper schooling after 1945, which ended in the triumph of contemporary technology. It lines the improvement of the connection among universities and nationwide states, academics and scholars, their targets and political actions. specific consciousness is paid to basic adjustments within the content material of educating on the universities
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Extra resources for A History of the University in Europe: Volume 4, Universities since 1945
A. ), Das Europa der Universitaten/L’Europe des Universit´es/The Univer¨ sities’ Europe: Entstehung der Standigen Konferenz der Rektoren und Vize-Kanzler der ¨ ¨ europaischen Universitaten 1948–1962, Dokumentation (Bad Godesberg, 1964); cf. 40 ans CRE, CRE-action, 115 (1999), Suppl´ement. ¨ Maass, Europaische Hochschulpolitik (note 47), 25–9, 127–34. 24 Themes In 1970 an innovative compromise found favour: a proposal to establish not a European University but a European Graduate College. In 1976, in the Badia Fiesolana of San Domenico above the city of Florence, the European University Institute for Doctoral Studies in the Social Sciences opened.
23 The number of universities increased rapidly. 24 In addition there were 300 specialized institutions of higher education preparing students for careers in the military, medicine and veterinary medicine, agriculture, education, music, engineering and commerce. These had not, however, replaced the universities, for they were attended by a relatively small 20 21 22 23 24 ¨ ¨ F. Schleiermacher, Gelegentliche Gedanken uber Universitaten im deutschen Sinn: Nebst ¨ einem Anhang uber die neu zu errichtende (Berlin, 1808), 33f.
What today would be deplored as high rates of non-completion was the norm in the medieval period. Most of those entering the university left without taking an expensive examination. In their self-determined period of study they gained the intellectual skills that would allow them to prosper without an academic qualification in areas increasingly dominated by the ability to deal with the exchange of money and letters. An Italian city administration, for example, accepted the possession of the Corpus iuris as a qualification for the post of judge.