By Hong-Sik Hwang
This short offers a finished review of NMR spectroscopy, masking innovations similar to 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR, that are trustworthy instruments to figure out lipid oxidation point, to spot oxidation items, and to clarify oxidation mechanism. The short indicates that 1H NMR spectroscopy regularly demonstrates reliability, accuracy, comfort, and benefits over traditional analytical equipment in decision of the extent of oxidation of fit for human consumption oil in the course of frying and garage via tracking adjustments in different proton indications of oil, together with olefinic, bisallylic and allylic protons. this contemporary analytical approach is proven inside this article for use to spot oxidation items, together with fundamental oxidation items similar to hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes and secondary items reminiscent of aldehydes, ketones, epoxides and their derivatives. via deciding on intermediates and ultimate oxidation items, many oxidation mechanisms might be elucidated. a comparatively more moderen approach, the textual content demonstrates that 13C NMR and 31P NMR spectroscopy may also offer additional info at the molecular constitution of an oxidation product. Backgrounds, rules, and benefits over traditional equipment, most modern advances, and destiny customers of those tools are discussed.
Advances in NMR Spectroscopy for Lipid Oxidation evaluate begins by means of overlaying many of the mechanisms of lipid oxidation, together with a variety of how to verify oxidation items. NMR spectroscopy is then lined, together with its purposes in meals. the following part makes a speciality of 1H NMR Spectroscopy, together with its use for evaluation of lipid oxidation in the course of oil garage and frying. the subsequent part makes a speciality of 13C NMR spectroscopy, together with its use in identifying and picking oxidation items and mechanisms. a last part makes a speciality of 31<
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Additional resources for Advances in NMR Spectroscopy for Lipid Oxidation Assessment
One advantage of the 13C NMR is that the chemical shifts of 13 C NMR signals are quite characteristic for specific carbons. For example, the carbonyl carbons of aldehydes and ketones are shown at 180–200 ppm, while carbonyl carbons of acids and esters appear at 160–185 ppm. Signals at 125–150, 115–140, 50–90, 30–65, 16–25, 10–15 ppm can be assigned as carbons of aromatic rings, alkenes, alcohols, amines, aliphatic CH2, and terminal CH3, respectively. When it is used for two dimensional (2D) NMR techniques with 1H NMR, such as 1H–13C heteronuclear single-quantum correlation spectroscopy (HSQC), it can give information on which proton is attached to which carbon.
The study confirmed that there was a migration of main and some minor compounds between oil and fish. The same technique was used to monitor the evolution of the compositional changes in sunflower oils throughout fourteen deep-frying experiments of three different foods (Martínez- Yusta and Guillén 2016). For a heating process, the changes in the molar percentages of acyl groups in sunflower oil are caused by thermo–oxidation. However, for the frying process involving foods, the migration of lipid from the food to the frying medium significantly affected the molar percentage of all kinds of acyl groups.
2013a). The Diels-Alder reaction mechanism has been believed to be one of the major mechanisms to produce dimers, oligomers, and polymers during the oxidation of edible oil since the 1930s. In the DEPT135 spectrum, CH and CH3 signals are shown in a phase opposite to CH2 signals. Quaternary carbons (C) do not appear in the DEPT 135. Therefore, signals appeared in the normal 13C NMR spectrum but not in the DEPT 135 spectrum are identified as quaternary carbons (C). 1 shows the mechanism of the Diels-Alder reaction to produce a six-membered ring compound during oil oxidation.